Renal failure can be acute or rapid or sudden in onset where it is termed acute renal failure or acute renal insufficiency. When renal failure occurs after long term kidney disease, it is called chronic renal failure.
Causes of Chronic Renal Failure
The most common causes of chronic renal failure in North America are diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2 diabetes) and high blood pressure. The most common cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide is IgA nephropathy (an inflammatory disease of the kidney).
One of the complications resulting from diabetes or high blood pressure is the damage to the small blood vessels in the body. The blood vessels in the kidneys also become damaged, resulting in CKD.
Other common causes of chronic renal failure include:
recurring pyelonephritis (kidney infection)
polycystic kidney disease (multiple cysts in the kidneys)
autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus
hardening of the arteries, which can damage blood vessels in the kidney
urinary tract blockages and reflux, due to frequent infections, stones, or an anatomical abnormality that happened at birth
excessive use of medications that are metabolized through the kidneys