Kidney damage and decreased function that lasts longer than 3 months is called chronic kidney disease (CKD). Chronic kidney disease is particularly dangerous because you may not have any symptoms until considerable, often irreparable, kidney damage has occurred. Diabetes (types 1 and 2) and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD.
The two most common causes are diabetes and high blood pressure. Others are glomerulonephritis (nephritis), polycystic kidney disease, urinary tract obstruction, reflux nephropathy, and drug- or medication-induced kidney problems. Bacteria such as E. coli and bacterial infections, such as strep throat, are other culprits.
Many effective drugs are available to treat high blood pressure. In addition, healthy lifestyle changes, such as losing weight and regular exercise, often help to control, and may even help to prevent, high blood pressure.
Careful control of blood sugar in diabetics helps to prevent such complications as kidney disease, coronary heart disease and stroke. When diabetics have associated high blood pressure, special drugs called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may help to protect their kidney function.
Other causes of ckd :
Adult people are at an increased risk of CKD if they:
are 60 years or older
are of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin
have a family history of kidney disease
have established heart problems (heart failure or past heart attack) and/or have had a stroke
have high blood pressure
are obese (BMI more than or equal to >30)
are a smoker
The greater prevalence of CKD in some Indigenous Australian communities is due to the high incidence of traditional risk factors including diabetes, high blood pressure and smoking, in addition to increased levels of inadequate nutrition, alcohol abuse, streptococcal throat and skin infection, and poor living conditions.